Biodiesel reactor GlobeCore
The main raw material for such a process as the production of biodiesel is vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, flaxseed, etc.). The type of oil used introduces certain features to the properties of the final product. For example, biological diesel fuel obtained on the basis of rapeseed oil is distinguished by a relatively small calorific value, as well as a high pour point and filterability.
Generally speaking, the process itself consists in reducing the viscosity of vegetable oil. This effect can be achieved using various methods.
Includes: (ethers connected to the glycerol molecule) and triatomic alcohol. Glycerin is mainly responsible for viscosity and density. Therefore, it is an alcohol component. This process is called transesterification.
A positive feature of biological diesel fuel is the possibility of using waste oil for its production. The primary product must first be pre-filtered to remove impurities and water. If the water is not completely removed, there is a risk that the transesterification reaction may be replaced by triglyceride hydrolysis. This is undesirable because the output will not biodiesel, and salts of fatty acids.
As follows. Vegetable oil is first heated to a certain temperature, after which alcohol and catalyst are added to it. In some cases, an acid is used to speed up the reactions. The resulting mixture must be stirred and allowed to stand. After this, it must be delaminated with the formation in the upper layer of biodiesel , the middle layer – soap, and the lower layer – glycerin.
Extra layers are separated from biodiesel reactor, after which it is washed in order to remove soap residues, catalysts and other undesirable impurities. This is followed by drying out moisture, for example, magnesium sulfate. The desiccant is removed by conventional filtration.
The math is quite simple: if you have one ton of vegetable oil, 111 kg of alcohol and 12 kg of catalyst, then it is quite possible to get 970 kg of biodiesel and 153 kg of primary glycerin at the output. Good biodiesel in color should resemble honey, but glycerin has a darker color. If waste vegetable oil was used as a raw material, the glycerol obtained is usually brown in color and can harden at 38 ° C. In the case of using fresh vegetable oil, glycerin remains liquid even at lower temperatures.
To assess the quality of the biofuel produced, visual inspection and pH monitoring are used. Externally, high-quality biodiesel should be similar to pure sunflower oil, does not contain any impurities, suspensions and contaminating particles, as well as cloudiness. If, however, turbidity was noticed, it means that the product contains water, and it must be removed by heating.